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Category Archives: Pain
Pain is our body’s alarm signal, so its cause should always be investigated. It can vary in nature from the dull ache of an arthritic hip, to the almost intolerable electric shocks of trigeminal neuralgia. Tolerance varies between individuals, but is lower if we are tired, stressed or without other distractions. Some forms are responsive to simple painkillers, whilst others demand stronger, prescription-only drugs, the side-effects of which can be troublesome.
Whatever the pain, acupuncture is a gentle and safe treatment approach. It may also help with any consequences of your pain such as disturbed sleep, depression or loss of appetite.
Below you will find a wide range of research into acupuncture for pain. The studies cover chronic pain from a variety of causes, plus pain relief in hospital A&E, ICU and post-operative settings. There is also trigeminal neuralgia, phantom limb pain, studies with military veterans, and a look at how acupuncture could be part of the solution to dependence on opioid drugs. Pain from shingles, multiple sclerosis and cancer are covered, as is dental pain. Note that some specific types of pain eg neck or back pain, come under their own headings elsewhere.
An American study shows acupuncture reduces pain after bone marrow transplantation, and decreases postoperative opioid use. Sixty adults with multiple myeloma and undergoing chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation, were randomised to receive either true or sham acupuncture once daily for five days. The first treatment was given the day after chemotherapy. Opioid use was assessed at 5, 15 and 30 days after transplantation.
All 15 true acupuncture patients who were non-users of opioids, remained free of them still at the end of the study. By contrast, 20% of those given sham acupuncture started using opioids after chemotherapy and stem cell infusion (day 5), and by the 30 day point, 40% were users. As regards patients who were already opioid users at baseline, by day 30, 21% in the true acupuncture group and 30% in the sham acupuncture group, had increased their use. The researchers conclude that acupuncture appears to significantly reduce the need for pain medications during this procedure and warrants further studies as an opioid-sparing intervention.
American researchers have shown electroacupuncture significantly reduces pain after kidney stone removal by percutaneous nephrolithotomy. They randomised 51 patients to receive either electroacupuncture, sham electroacupuncture or no acupuncture. Flank and abdomen pain was lower at all time points in the electroacupuncture group compared with the other two groups. Immediate post-operative opioid use was also lower in the electroacupuncture group, with two patients not requiring any opioids.
The researchers say that electroacupuncture significantly reduces pain and opioid usage without any adverse effects, and this promising treatment warrants further investigation.
(A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study Assessing Electroacupuncture for the Management of Postoperative Pain after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy. Journal of Endourology, March 2019.)
Authors of a large American pilot study have concluded acupuncture is a feasible and beneficial, non-pharmacological option for treating pain in the emergency department. The researchers’ aim was to determine the feasibility of employing an acupuncturist in an urban emergency department, to provide an acute pain management option.
Of 706 patients with acute pain, 379 agreed to try acupuncture in the emergency department of a Milwaukee hospital. Their mean pain scores decreased significantly (from 6.5 to 3.4), as did their levels of stress, anxiety and nausea. The treatment was well received.
One author reported, “We believe this research is very important because America is currently in the throes of a pain management and opioid crisis. What contributed to this crisis was a belief that new technologies, surgical procedures, and the liberal use of opioids would be the answers to controlling human pain. As we now know, these strategies have not proven efficacious in mitigating pain, suffering, and disability to the extent the public was led to believe.”
(ED Acupuncture: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact on Pain. American Pain Society Annual Meeting, April 2019.)
Research commissioned by the US State of Vermont shows that acupuncture is effective for chronic pain and offers a wide array of other benefits, for patients on low incomes and treated under the government-funded Medicaid scheme. Previous studies have shown that this population is hampered in its access to non-pharmacological treatments, by lack of health insurance. In a pragmatic randomised trial, Medicaid patients with chronic pain were offered up to 12 acupuncture sessions over a 60 day period. This resulted in 156 patients (111 women & 45 men) receiving an average 8.2 treatments.
– There were significant improvements in pain intensity, pain interference, physical function, fatigue, anxiety, depression, sleep and social isolation.
– 57% of patients using non-opioid analgesics reported reductions in use.
– 32% of patients using opioid analgesics reported reductions in use.
– 74% of employed patients reported improved capacity to work.
– 96% of patients would recommend acupuncture to others with chronic pain.
(Acupuncture for Chronic Pain in the Vermont Medicaid Population: A Prospective, Pragmatic Intervention Trial. Global Advances in Health & Medicine, April 2018.)